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Risk factor associated with retinopathy of prematurity: a hospital based study

Author: 
Akher Ali., Rukeya Begum and Farhana Rahman

Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which was previously called as Retrolental Fibroplasia (RFL), is a vaso-proliferative disorder of the retina. Preterm low birth weight infants are more prone for this disease those are exposed to large amount of Oxygen. Objectives: Identify the risk factor which could influence the development of ROP. To study the incidence of ROP in preterm infants with a gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks or a birth weight of less than 1500 grams admitted to NICU for a period of 1 year. To Methods: This was a prospective observational study, conducted at NICU, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, from 1st July 2017 to 30thJune 2018. Result: Out of 347 admission to NICU, 122 satisfied inclusion criteria. 20 babies developed any stage of ROP and 102 babies who did not develop ROP were termed as NON ROP. The mean birth weight among ROP was calculated 1178.70 ±309.513gm and NON ROP was1288.69±148.447gm .Overall incidence of ROP in this study was 16.39%. Statistical analysis showed Birth weight (p<0.001), Gestational age(p<0.016).Oxygen supplementation(p=0.000),Apnea(p<0.001),Sepsis(p=0.009),Anemia needing blood transfusion(p=0.0329), CPAP(P=0.000) were found risk factor for developing ROP. However Surfactant therapy, Mechanical Ventilation and Phototherapy were found insignificant. Conclusion: The timely retinal screening in high-risk preterm infants is important to prevent the development of ROP and its complications.

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