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Epidemiological aspects and hemoglobin electrophoresis status of schoolchildren in bondoukou (côte d’ivoire)

Author: 
Kouakou B., N’Guessan T.S., Packo DSS., L.P Touré., Bassirou B., Dedy S.F and Tolo-Diebkilé A

Background: Sickle cell disease is most frequent hemoglobinopathy in the world. It remains a public health issue in Côte d’Ivoire with 12% of the population that is affected. Despite the efficiency of primary prevention, the number of people with sickle cell disease continues to increase. Screening through hemoglobin electrophoresis in the newborns and during the prenuptial exams is one of the ways to reduce and eliminate this disease.
Objective: The study’s aims was to establish the epidemiological aspects and the hemoglobin S prevalence of sickle cell disease of schoolchildren at the city of Bondoukou in Côte d’Ivoire.
Materials and methods: It was a prospective and descriptive study wich performed at the primary school of “Plateau 2” during the period of April 2013. We chosed 102 students randomly and in proportion to the number of the students in the school. After getting the authorization of National Research and Ethics Committee, the school's supervisor consent, the parents’ consent and the children’ consent, we collected the child's blood. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was measured using the technic of electrofocalisation in alkaline. Then we collected the data with a questionnaire. The parameters of our study was: age, sex, medico-surgical history and blood cell count.
Results: There were 63.7% female and 36.2% males. The average age was 11.1 years with the extremes of 5 and 16 years old. Malaria was the most reason of hospitalization of the schoolchildren with 44% of the cases. 29.4% and 55.6% of them had respectively joint pain and anaemia with hemoglobin between 7-12g/dl. Only 3.9% and (2.9%) had thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis. Anemia was observed with a hemoglobin rate between 7-11 g/dl in 55.6% of the cases, 3.9% of thrombocytopenia and 2.9% of leukocytosis. The electrophoresis phenotype showed AS 9.8% and AC 8.7%.
Conclusion: The existence of phenotype AS and AC involves the possibility of the unexpected arrival in the future of sickles disease in the population. So it is necessary to sensitize, educate and inform population about this disease. These actions of school children about the disease and a genetic culture to health awareness, source of prevention, reducing health risks for each individual of the society.

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