Toxic effects of lead on birds - a review

SunitaYadav and ParulSaksena

The toxicity of heavy metals depends on various factors, the total dose absorbed, route of exposure and whether the exposure was acute or chronic. The age and sex of the organism can also influence toxicity. Young, growing birds are typically more sensitive to the toxic effects of chronic metal exposure than adults. The findings revealed that lead is virtually ubiquitous, not only being deposited and accumulated in various tissues, but found in varying concentrations in air, soil, food, and water. Exposure to lead produces various deleterious effects on the morphology, body weight, hematopoietic, renal, reproductive system and also imbalance the levels of protein,cholesterol and various enzymes and hormonal concentration.

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